Issue 10

Compensation for environmental damage caused by oil extraction operations Comparison between the UAE and Iraqi law study

Ismail N. Hussein

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 1-30

Compensation of environmental damages which caused by oil extraction operations
A comparative study between the UAE law and Iraqi law

It is no secret that the oil extraction operations leave behind residues and trash, which adversely affect on the environment, then harming the environment in different levels and scopes according to the type of trash and its amount. These damages and torts will be affected by the oil company's bindings with disciplines and restrictions in the operations of extraction. With known that any tort to the environment affects directly or indirectly on humans, which drew the attention of most lawmakers to intervene in order to mitigate the effects of such damage and reduce them if possible. There is no doubt that the search in the legislative means to deal with such damage and determining the scope of the damage first, and then the statement of how dealing with it, and in this regard we have focused on procedures and mechanisms established in both UAE and Iraq to prevent environmental damage and to avoid it, as well as we showed the situation of them to deal with the environmental damage that happened.

The tenant legal responsibility towards the leased funds In the lease contract Study compared

Muhannad B.Saleh Mufriji

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 31-70

Plays Leasing important and significant role in the Iraqi economy and revitalize development after the Great Depression that pain by Battabarh good way financing for both companies public or private sector in Iraq, in addition to the great role of the landlord and the tenant and the Iraqi economy alike, but this decade is facing in Indeed, significant legal obstacles on the grounds that this contract is a new recipe on the reality of Iraq and the Iraqi legislation is not regulated by law, or even disconnect in the law in spite of great importance, especially as Iraq is going through the developmental revolution and trying to attract investments, and encourage them, whether Iraqi companies or companies Arab or foreign, which need to be legal and legislative pave the ground for such a giant project. The absence of such legislation in Iraq so dramatically and not keep up with the Iraqi legislation comparison of legislation in such subjects, born great foil for investment companies and the Iraqi non-Iraqi. And try to find the basis for such legislation is so important for all parties

Parallel Importation & Exhaustion of IPRs in Int. Trade. Study in trading patented pharmaceutical products.

Farhad S. Sadi

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 71-112

تعتبر تکنولوجیا صناعة الادویة مقارنة بالمجالات الاخرى من التکنولوجیا من الصناعات الحیویة والمعقدة فی نفس الوقت والتی تواجه منافسة شدید. مع ان اتفاقیة تربس ومن خلال منظمة التجارة العالمیة تفرض معاییر حمایة عالیة بالنسبة للمنتجات الدوائیة من خلال رفع سقف الحمایة من العملیة الصناعیة الى المنتج نفسه، الا ان اصحاب الحقوق الفکریة فی الادویة من الشرکات المبتکرة یدعون بانهم یواجهون تحدیات وثغرات فی الحمایة ومنها صعوبة استیفاء شروط منح البراءة من الجدة والخطوة الابتکاریة، بالاضافة الى متطلب الموافقة التسویقیة ویشترطه معظم الدول من خلال تقدیم بیانات الفاعلیة والامان والذی یتطلب القیام باختبارات مکلفة ومستغرقة للوقت مما یقلل مدة الحمایة الفعلیة بعد منح البراءة، یضاف الى ذلک قیام بعض الدول ومنها النامیة باستیراد المنتج المطروح فی السوق فی دولة اخرى دون استیرادها من المنتج الاصلی مستغلة سیاسة تمییز الاسعار بین الدول.
والدول النامیة من جانبها هی الاخرى تشتکی من الحمایة القویة للابتکارات فی هذا المجال التی جاءت بها الاتفاقیة من خلال حمایة المنتج دون عملیة الصنع، فأغلب تشریعات الدول النامیة قبل نفاذ اتفاقیة تربس کانت تستند على حمایة طریقة صنع المنتج الدوائی دون المنتج نفسه لتوفیر الادویة بسعر مناسب لمواطنیها، اما بعد نفاذ الاتفاقیة وحمایة المنتج وفی ظل محدودیة استثناءات الحمایة تقوم الدول النامیة بعملیة الاستیراد الموازی مبررة ذلک على التزامها بحمایة الحق فی الصحة لمواطنیها.
تکمن مشکلة البحث فی بیان مدى شرعیة الاستیراد الموازی، وهل یعتبر القیام بها تعدیا على الحقوق الاستئثاریة التی تمنحها براءة الاختراع. خلال الاستناد على فرضیة استفاذ الحقوق الفکریة للمخترعین فی مجال الادویة یمکن تبریر القیام بالاستیراد الموازی من قبل الدول النامیة، حیث ان الحقوق الاستئثاریة للمخترع یمکن ان یصطدم بحق المشتری بهذا الخصوص ولا یمکن استمرار تحکم المنتج فی البضاعة بعد البیع الشرعی الاول فی السوق. الا انه لاجل اعطاء الشرعیة للاستیراد الموازی یجب تفسیر نصوص اتفاقیة تربس على اساس استنفاذ الحقوق الفکریة وتبنی الاستنفاذ الدولی فی تشریعاتها من خلال المادة 6 من الاتفاقیة نفسها. وتناول بحث المشکلة والفرضیة اعلاه من خلال النهج التحلیلی فی تفسیر نصوص اتفاقیة تربس على ضوء اهدافها ومن خلال الخطة التالیة المقسمة الى مبحثین: متناولا فی المبحث الاول ماهیة المنتج الدوائی، وکیفیة حمایته عن طریق براءة الاختراع ومتطرقا لفلسفة الحمایة والتحدیات التی تواجه المنتجین فی هذا المجال. وفی المبحث الثانی تناولنا مفهوم الاستیراد الموازی، اساسه القانونی وانواع الاستیراد الموازی. ومختتما البحث ببیان تجارب بعض الدول فی هذا المجال وامکانیة ایجاد حلول تکفل قیام الاستیراد الموازی دون ان یشکل تحدیا امام تجارة المنتجات الدوائیة وتضمن توفیر الادویة باسعار فی متناول العامة من الناس. ومقترحا فی الوقت نفسه حمایة عادلة من الاستیراد الموازی ومن خلال نظریة العقد والمسؤولیة العقدیة دون الاستناد على حق الملکیة بهذا الخصوص.

Iraqi assessment tax system (between reality and aspiration) Income tax model

Abdul Sattar H.Angad

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 113-180

There is no doubt that whenever the legal system in any country airtight configuration and a few gaps had more impact on individuals in terms of organizational and life and was more pronounced because of its state-of-administration organization and deep-rooted in their arrangement, and applies it more than the financial side, but may increase the importance of the rest of the legal systems in the state, for reasons most important of with respect to the state, as this legal system (financial) is what feeds the state with the necessary fiscal revenue for the sake of its public spending, and that the existence of any defect in this system will reflect negatively on what can you get money in order to serve the public interest, and on the other hand will affect individuals psychologically and physical, where there are gaps in these laws will allow some of the tax evasion, which feels the rest they are borne by all of this burden, and material terms will lead to a variation in the tax rate due to lack of careful study of the entry in the state.
Although he can not be any system of human, whatever the accuracy and construction that comes complete and there must be loopholes in this system, but it was important to try every system that narrows of these gaps as little as possible where that whenever I told these gaps whenever the system is this closer to perfection .
And what we tried here that we do is a statement of the nature of the tax system in Iraq and try statement shortcomings that have accompanied this system and especially that most of the tax laws in Iraq are the laws of the past decade and which no longer fit the orientations of Iraq, especially after 2003, as well as differences in tax laws between the center and the region in particular and the Kurdistan region of Iraq has changed in a lot of laws and what suits and legal and economic conditions, which were different from the Government of Iraq for a long time.

Scientific lightings for the judiciary in the United States of America

Abdulghafur.K.Ali; SAMAN A. azez

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 181-205

Every nation has its own judicial system, but what is important is how to guarantee thee4 existence of an independent judiciary by the provisions laid down in their Constitutions. Hence, the independence of the judiciary is an essential matter to warrant the implementation of the Constitution and its provisions in one hand, and to endorse the legitimacy of the government.In this context, the Constitution of the United States (the U.S. Constitution) has singled out its Article III to determine the legal basis for the judicial authority in appointing judges, their service obligations and the structure of the courts as well as the relationships between the Supreme Court and the lower courts. Moreover, the Constitution has divided the American political system into three institutions; they are legislative, executive and judiciary, without constructing any boundaries to circumvent occurring interferences between the three authorities. This intervention happens particularly by both the executive and legislative with the political affairs of the country, which is considered as a major dilemma of This research, thus, focusses on the independence of the judiciary, its tasks, approvals and the constitutionality of laws enacted. In fact, the U.S. Constitution did not put solutions for the conflicts occurring between the President and Congress in the political arena. This is to implicitly safeguard the existing balance between authorities, and to achieve objectives planned for. The researcher will conclude from this study on the judicial system of the United States the following three points:
1. In the past, the independence of the judiciary and the emergence of a strong judicial system had a significant impact on the course of the application of the Constitution. Besides that, it was backing of the authority of the Federal Constitution (Federal) and the constitutionality of laws and in general to respect the legal principles. In fact, before the year 1803there was a principle called “right of cancellation”, which means every state has the right to prove the invalidity of all legal texts contrary to the Constitution, and to accordingly bring the application of that legal text into an end. This principle is based on the idea of the validity of each State as a member of the Union and by their respective legislative could determine whether or not a violation of the Constitution had occurred. However, in 1803 the Supreme Court of the United States of America issued a judicial decision (by Chief Justice John James Marshall who and served as minister in the government of President John Adams), to reinforce the principle that in the event of a conflict between the Constitutional provision and the ordinary law of a particular case is presented to the judiciary, the Court has the power to implement one of the following three options: Firstly, to validate the contradiction between ordinary law and constitutional provision; secondly, to choose either one; or, thirdly to give preferences to the Constitution, and to disapprove ordinary law. Nonetheless, if the judge acted otherwise, his action was to be deemed in violation of the Constitution.
2. The United States laws are valid laws which in fact contributed to the success of both the judicial system and to the stability of democratic government in the country.
3. The distribution of major powers in the Constitution of the United States had been in accordance with the objectives set forth by articles 1,2 and3. This is to formulate the general framework which can guarantee the existence of the legal text between the authorities, and to ensure the continuation and suitability of the legal text for all conditions, but with no effect to the power of the Federal Union and its function in each authority particularly the judiciary and its independence.

International and Regional Water Policy Common case of Turkish Ilisu dam study

Amal wahab

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 206-326

The concept of – Value of water – is more complicated than the volume of financial and economic evaluation , and It includes other social and cultural and historical and environmental dimensions .
Iraq must oblige with the basics of Islamic Doctrine and principles of International law to offer the sources of his International water from the neighbor Turkey , and the Iraqi Decision maker must oblige politically and joining in following new programs on higher levels to evaluate the water resources and It‘s development and doing Campaigns to improve the general awareness and re-active the cooperation between the administration and people and establishing societies and associations for water users and joining private sector in management .
The Iraqi Decision – Maker must understand that the negotiation must be done on the basis of different advantages exchange ( Iraqi Oil in return for water coming from Turkey )that must be with clear properties strategic and many cause to treat the shortage of water resources in limited period , but it must transfer to pressure paper by origin country – Turkey – through the visible future particularly after establishing excess Turkish Dams and Tanks on Tigris and Euphrates rivers , and last one is Aliso Dam , and after the world saw the oil on year 1973 not only as essential Good but also basic condition to the stability of International economic , this vision was being used clearly on water in dry regions such as Iraq .

Regional and international repercussions of the crisis between the Crimean evidence of history Russian, US and indisputable conflict - the spheres of influence

Nadeer M.ameen

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 327-356

Regional and international repercussions of the Crimean crisis between the evidence of history and Russian controversial conflict - U.S. of influence areas ."
The Ukrainian Crisis Reflect Clearly International Competition of Influence Areas, and Confirms That in spite of obsolescence Ideological Contradiction Between United States And Russia Disintegration Union Soviet, Although Interests Presence And understandings Joint Between The two countries, But The Civilization Contradiction Still Standing Between them. So The International Conflict Will Continue Between them and Will Be More clear In Russia Bio Area which represented In Independent Association States , Where Second oil Greater Reserves After middle East In Caspian Sea . The Conflict In Future is Conflict on Energy Resources .

Peaceful Coexistence in Iraq Approaches & Guarantees

Kamal A.Hassan

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2014, Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 357-379

To confirm on the concept of the peaceful coexistence and united country in order to survive the united Iraq . This can be achieved through relying on the constitution of the country of 2005. To work together to fight terror through national consensus by all parts of the Iraqi society and all other supportive institutions. To develop the federal system to rule the country which is approved in the constitution, rather than going back to central system . It is necessary to build state institutions and getting benefit from all skills rather than running the country on the bases of sectarianism and political bases. The religious figures would be able to take an active role to organize conferences and dialogues and emphasis on an important point which is the role of religion in the process of tolerance and the concept of generous and love. The media outlets broadcast programs would help to improve the process of tolerance and democratic culture and its practices.
The civil society and pressure groups should be active to observe the policies of the institutions of the state in general and on the implementation of the laws and instructions.