The Russian Federation, the heir to the former Soviet Union, which in turn inherited the collapsed tsarist Russia, all have specific strategic objectives in the Middle East. The essence of these goals is to build an influential presence in it to protect and develop the interests of the Russian Federation in the future. And the more their overall strength develops, the greater size and type of their presence develops in the Middle East. They are exploiting opportunities to strengthen this presence, as in exploiting the failure of the United States in its "Arab Spring" project and the failure of the United States to achieve full success in the fight against terrorism in the Middle East and North Africa 2014-2017. The Russian Federation has succeeded in extending its influence by the fluctuated withdrawal of US influence from the Middle East 2009-2016 under the rule of President Barack Obama, but the question here is can this Russian Federation maintain or increase this expansion in the new administration in the United States within the rule of President Donald Trump?