Keywords : human rights


Empowering Women with Political Rights

Suhad Abdul Jamal Abdul Karim

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2022, Volume 11, Issue issue 40 part 2, Pages 205-258

Nowadays, the concept of women's right to political empowerment is one of the new ideas that has been adopted by the United Nations to be a cornerstone of its development system. This concept means integrating women into the political decision-making process and the exercise of their human rights to ensure effective and influential political participation, The United Nations has shown great attention to women's political rights and intensified its international efforts to protect, promote and internationalize these rights. These efforts have formed many international conventions and conferences that focus on the equality of women with men, as well as the necessity for women to enjoy their human rights. As a result, they put in place a set of guarantees, obligations, and international mechanisms to empower, protect their rights and promote them, However, one can note that there is a huge gap between the international trends and the reality of women's political empowerment. Therefore, It is necessary to obtain societal and political help to support women's access to decision-making positions in their countries. In addition, to focus on women's actual practice of their rights based on the international conventions not only in the local laws.

ACTIVATING OR DISABLING CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY

Hoda S.Mohammed Al-Atarqji

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 36 part 1, Pages 1-30

The criminal protection of human rights is a legal insurance for every human being to defend him from any encroach on his rights, but this insurance does not have the same effectiveness in the case of emergency, in that the emergency case is an exceptional state which possibly could stop the work in legal clauses that form the statutory insurances to humans in the criminal law, and this preventing is requirable in order to achieve the balance in human rights between protecting their families and lives on one hand and protecting the authority of the state from any assault or disorder. To investigate in this activating or deactivating could not exist only in the emergency state and it does not in the normal cases because there are no obligations to deactivate the laws and the principles which construct legitimate guarantees for humans in the normal state. Moreover, the problem which emerges in the research is determining the legal clauses that can be activated or deactivated in the case of emergency, and what is the trustable criterion to which they are bound to, and their appropriateness with the rules of the international law in protecting human rights. According to that, it is going to analyze, explain and adapt the legal clauses in the punishment law, the rules of international law, the international conventions, the emergency law and how to search for a legitimate support which may define the rights that hinder their own legitimate clauses which are concerned in protecting them or activate their protection in the emergency case in that to treat the crucial cases that happen in the case of emergency and determine the dependable criterion in this activating or deactivating. It is also has been determined the cases which require a clear, legal treatment so that to activate this right in the emergency state and decide relentless punishments in the case of violating these laws. Furthermore, it has been determined the laws that conflict with the human rights, and the difficulty of this research shows itself when there is no deep study about this subject in a case of emergency because of its sensitivity concerning human rights and the difficulty to have decisions that touch human rights, especially in the state of emergency since most of the work or the authority is going to be in the hands of the military forces. In addition to that, the importance of this research lies in its difficulty and it can be a guideline for human rights commissions to know the illegal infringements regarding human rights in the emergency case. It also functions as a legal civilizing for the citizens to know what is for them and what is on them in the case of emergency; and a legitimate, studious paper presented to executive and juristic governments: the executive authority to know what is for it and what is not in the case of emergency and the legislative authority in order to make adjustments, adding or deleting to the clauses which require to do so in order to coincide with the principles of human rights.

HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION IN CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL REALITY

Kadir M.Qadir Amin

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 36 part 1, Pages 354-384

International interference in the affairs of states has become a common occurrence in the past two decades, due to many reasons, including humanitarian intervention to protect minorities from the arbitrariness of the regimes in which they live, or to prevent and stop wars, especially if they take regional and international dimensions that threaten international peace and security, that the concept of humanitarian intervention It is a vague and hazy concept that is not clear-cut, and at the same time it is a concept that is not characterized by impartiality and generality, and it is dominated by the character of eclecticism and privacy. Therefore, it is difficult to find a specific legal definition for it, because it is a subject of controversy and disagreement between scholars of international law and international relations.

PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS AND ITS IMPACT ON INTERNATIONALIZING INTERNAL CONFLICTS

Suhaib K. Jassim Ahmed

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 36 part 2, Pages 293-318

The importance of international peace and security for all mankind cannot be denied especially after the scourge of the two world wars in the twentieth century، during which the international peace and security collapsed. The fundamental principles underling the international system ، and after the end of the Cold War in the late twentieth century ، internal conflicts increased dramatically ، caused serious violations of human rights ، and posed a threat to international peace and security ، which means that dealing with this threat falls within the jurisdiction. The Security Council which is entrusted with the task of maintaining international peace and security. Thus ، the protection of human rights is a major objective and fundamental principle of the United Nations for its direct relationship with international peace and security. and this relationship was the reason for the internationalization of internal conflicts in order to resolve and resolve and maintain international peace and security.

THE UNITED NATIONS’ MECHANISMS TO CONFRONT AND DETER THE GENOCIDE OF MINORITIES

Hussein A. Issa; Lajan M. Othman

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2020, Volume 9, Issue issue 35 part 1, Pages 198-226

Notwithstanding the efforts exerted by the United Nations to confront genocide of minorities, which culminated in the adoption of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide on 9 December 1948, and the establishment of a number of interim international criminal tribunals, as well as the International Criminal Court, which had a prominent role in opposing and detaining its perpetrators, the crime is still being perpetrated in different parts of the world. The United Nations has therefore resorted to a number of other mechanisms to address this crime, most notably endorsing Responsibility to Protect (R2P) commitment, founding the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention, the protection of civilians and international cooperation.In order to investigate these mechanisms, this study consists of sections to deal with each mechanism individually. Finally, the study ends up with a set of conclusions drawn from the research.Key words: the United Nations, genocide, crime, human rights, international.

LEGAL CONFRONTATION AND CHALLENGES TO CORONA VIRUS

Doha N. Talabani

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2020, Volume 9, Issue Issue المؤتمر الافتراضی الاول / الجزء الاول, Pages 107-123

International human rights law provides an appropriate and binding framework to help governments move quickly by providing the required support for human rights in response to the public health crisis caused by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic . Consequently, the question arises about what international standards are applicable in this context , and how is it possible to protect the health of individuals and ensure the enjoyment of the right to health care? What is the international and national protection of the health of individuals? In addition, this research paper reviewed the economic and social consequences of the pandemic as a result of the strict measures taken by countries to combat this pandemic.

International judicial protection of human rights

Sufyan.L. Ali; Aqab.A .Mohammed

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2019, Volume 8, Issue issue 28 part 2, Pages 52-77

The modern concept of human rights has not settled in the conscience of humankind and has attained its high status in democratic systems and on the international scene only after a long and arduous series of continuous struggle and bitter suffering. Human rights were in the past an individual or a local issue that concerns the legislation or internal practices of a state, however, it has become a global issue. It is no exaggeration to say that it has become a common human heritage embracing the rights of every human being and any religion or race. It should be noted that there is international judicial protection of human rights after the States recognized the international guarantee of human rights and recognized that they no longer have the exclusive discretion of their nationals, except in accordance with the international legal rules that have been established in international dealing. In addition to this high structure of protection human rights, we discussed that protection and we addressed international organizations that have exercised international judicial protection of human rights .