Keywords : the state


THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF POWER IN IRAQ BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Muhammad Yusef Muhaimid; Ali Sufyan Abdullah

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 38 part 1, Pages 470-494

The state seeks to achieve progress and prosperity for its citizens through the rule of order and the establishment of security and the dissemination of the values of justice by applying the law to all "rulers and governed" because it is responsible for Alfred working or unemployed, if the individual must ensure "need and need" and the people look The direction of the government, which has the task of achieving justice and democracy, preventing exploitation and raising grievances by achieving equal opportunities among citizens and dissolving them for differences, this requires an expert and strong executive body to be the pillar of the rule of law and the institutionalization of power and the transformation of state authorities into functions to serve individuals and to maintain security, economy and welfare under the law and the Constitution.From this basis came the importance of establishing power in Iraq because we believe that the democratic transition that took place after 2003 has not yet produced a real institution for Iraqis

RESPONSIBILITY OF STATES FOR CRIMES OF SUPPORT AND FINANCING OF TERRORISM

Khaled Ahmed Matar

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 38 part 2, Pages 395-421

The fight against the support and financing of terrorism is a key pillar in the fight against terrorism. Terrorist financing has gained international prominence since the mid-1990s. States are unable to support and fund "clean money" for terrorism. This is not an old crime but an independent terrorist financing crime Just as the collection of funds with the intention and knowledge that they are used to support and finance acts of terrorism to the emergence of criminal responsibility under domestic and international law, and the countries supporting and financing terrorism subject to unilateral sanctions from the Security Council throughout the eighties and nineties, Sponsored and funded by states, was aimed primarily at provoking political opponents or increasing political aspirations in certain areas. A criminal responsibility was imposed on the state in the case of state terrorism issued by one of its agencies as well as civil responsibility.

LEGAL ADAPTATION OF MANAGEMENT AUTHORITIES IN EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES (EPIDEMICS SPREAD AS A MODEL)

Diaa A.Ali

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2020, Volume 9, Issue Issue المؤتمر الافتراضی الاول / الجزء الثانی, Pages 97-110

It is no secret to anyone that the administrative authorities in the state take charge of putting the legal rules into practice, and derive their powers and powers from the constitution, laws and regulations, so they exercise their duties in accordance with what was decreed and within the framework of the principle of legitimacy, but sometimes the state may be exposed to an exceptional risk or circumstance that requires implementation With special procedures to ward off this danger, the constitution often organizes how to deal with unusual and exceptional circumstances such as allowing suspension of work or non-compliance with some constitutional and legal texts during the period of the exceptional circumstance and working according to a special legitimacy that differs from that followed in the higher circumstances Leading.Granting the administrative authority the right to enjoy exceptional powers during extraordinary circumstances does not mean freeing its hand and not being held accountable for the material and legal actions issued by it, it remains subject to censorship, either during the exceptional circumstance or even after its demise if any breach of rights and freedoms or any unjustified abuse is required. Because the aim of granting these powers to the administrative authority is to achieve public interests and to protect and maintain public order, it must adapt its actions in light of this, So we decided in this research to study the legal adaptation of the authorities of the administration in exceptional circumstances, especially in the event that the state is exposed to a pandemic that threatens the health of citizens and constitutes a threat to the life of society, by dividing the study into two topics, the first topic dealt with an explanation of what the exceptional circumstances are, and the second topic dealt with the authorities of the administration In exceptional circumstances and legal adaptation.We have reached, through the research, a set of conclusions regarding the degree mainly of the reality of Iraq and the procedures followed by the competent authorities in dealing with exceptional circumstances and ways to prevent them, as we have made some proposals that we believe would contribute to strengthening this important and sensitive aspect that is directly related to the sovereignty The state, the rights and freedoms of individuals.