Keywords : Legislation


Raad fajer Al,rawi

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue Issue 39 part 1, Pages 189-212

The nature of international criminal responsibility in cyber attacks is return to its source which is the custom of international law, even though its included in international convention. Although, criminal responsibility for cyber attacks has international character, it is also has a national nature. The national law is considered the source of criminalization, even if this law is applying to international agreement based on international custom. The question that needs to be answered in this research is: can the authority facing cyber attacks as criminal side? And considering the perpetrators have international responsibility? The authority can impose international criminal responsibility on the perpetrators of cyber crimes because these crimes establish an assault on the basic interests of the international community. The cyber attacks is an attack on the interests of the state, directly or indirectly, because the government is a member of the international community. National criminal responsibility for cyber crimes has a wide scope because cyber attacks occur outside the territorial scope of the state in most cases.


Anmar N. Qasim

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2020, Volume 9, Issue issue 34 part 2, Pages 162-179

The international organizations play a major role in the development of the international community in its various fields. This role is changing, renewed and multifaced. Organizations play an important role in achieving cooperation between countries and their development. It is a tool for solving many economic, political and cultural problems among countries. The industrial development of developing countries, the promotion of scientific exchange and the transfer of technology, and the international organizations also have an important impact in the fight against pollution, and they have a role in the face of fluctuations in prices of raw materials, which result in lower export revenues. The international organizations also contribute to the establishment of a new legal system. The legislative work of the organizations indicates the extent to which these organizations influence the legislative system of the countries. states through the enactment of new legislation or procedures Amendments to its laws in such a way as to bring them into conformity with the Charter of the Organization, which would ultimately improve the legislative work of States.