Keywords : espionage


Trends In The International Law Of Electronic Espionage Quoted

Talaat Jiyad Legy Al Hadidi; Saad Ahmed Medan Al-Mafraji

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2022, Volume 11, Issue issue 40 part 1, Pages 578-620

الجوسسة فی زمن السلم قدیمة قدم البشریة, اما الجوسسة الالکترونیة فإنها تماماً مثل نظیرتها التقلیدیة, تنطوی على عملیات اقتحام غیر مصرح بها, ویتم استغلال على سبیل المثال نقاط الضعف الامنیة لکی تتجاوز الخوادم المشفرة والوصول الى البیانات التابعة للدول والشرکات والسفارات والوکالات الحکومیة وحتى الافراد, واحد الاختلافات الرئیسیة عن الجوسسة التقلیدیة هی الاستقلالیة الجغرافیة والمادیة العالیة التی تتمتع بها الجوسسة الالکترونیة, ذلک یعنی انه فی حالة الجوسسة على بیانات وکالة تابعة لدولة اخرى ؛ لیس هناک حاجة الى وجود شخص مادی او جهاز فی الحالة المستهدفة, ویستخدم بدلاً من ذلک الاوامر الصادرة من ای مکان وبالتالی یمکن ارتکاب اعمال الجوسسة الالکترونیة بغض النظر عن حدود الدولة . Espionage in peacetime is as old as humanity, and electronic espionage, just like its traditional counterpart, involves unauthorized intrusions, and security vulnerabilities are exploited, for example, to bypass encrypted servers and access data belonging to countries, companies, embassies, government agencies and even individuals, one The main differences from traditional espionage are the high geographical and physical independence that electronic espionage enjoys, which means that in the case of espionage on the data of an agency of another country; There is no need to have a physical person or device in the target state, and instead uses orders issued from anywhere and thus electronic espionage can be committed regardless of state borders.The emergence of electronic espionage has changed the picture and turned to espionage with economic motives as it is related to national security, and the current reality in which countries live has proven that information at times has a degree of confidentiality required, which results in its circulation, theft, tampering, transmission and spread of a kind There are risks, and the importance of this information varies, as not all of them are of equal importance, because if some of them are transmitted to others, they will result in severe damage. Computers backed by electronic infrastructure located within the territory of another state lead to a violation of the rule of territorial sovereignty, and it is also a violation of the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of states, regardless of whether that electronic infrastructure is operated by state agencies or private actors, and therefore The rule of regional sovereignty provides an important and powerful source of legal protection against electronic espionage.

THE CRIME OF CYBER ESPIONAGE WITHIN THE FRAME OF PROJECT OF IRAQI INFORMATIVE CRIME ACT OF 2011

Isra'a Y.Hadi al- Moulah; Usama A.al-Neemy

Journal of college of Law for Legal and Political Sciences, 2021, Volume 10, Issue issue 36 part 1, Pages 31-72

The crime of cyber espionage is one of the serious and continually developing crimes due to the access of an offender to a website, information system or information network to obtain electronic content that is not available to the public affecting national security, the external relations of the state or the national economy using modern methods that are difficult to detect, especially with the huge technological development. in all fields. This research highlights the extent of criminal protection provided by the Iraqi legislator for electronic content containing confidential information belonging to the State, and included in the draft law of information crimes of 2011 to address this crime as it is a crime against the security of the State that threatens its existence. Therefore, this research deals with two sections, the first section was devoted to the definition of electronic spyware, and the definition of espionage in general, and the definition of electronic espionage in particular, and the prevalent images of spy, in addition to distinguishing electronic espionage from what is suspected, In the second section we have explained the elements of the crime of cyber espionage and the penalty prescribed for it.